NASA’s Mars Pathfinder mission landed on the Red Planet on July 4, 1997. It’s tiny rover, named Sojourner after abolitionist Sojourner Truth, spent 83 days of a planned seven-day mission exploring the Martian terrain, acquiring images, and taking chemical, atmospheric and other measurements. When the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft approached its destination, no NASA mission had successfully reached Mars in more than 20 years.The final data transmission received from Pathfinder was at 10:23 UTC on September 27, 1997.

This image shows the Twin Peaks, which are modest-size hills to the southwest of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. They were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the July 4, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken more than 20 years before. The peaks are approximately 100 feet tall (30-35 meters). North Twin is approximately 860 meters (2800 feet) from the lander, and South Twin is about a kilometer away (3300 feet). The scene includes bouldery ridges and swales or “hummocks” of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of the South Twin Peak.

The composite color frames that make up this “right-eye” image consist of seven frames, taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500 percent and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. This panchromatic frame was then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars.

Learn more: Why No One Under 20 Has Experienced a Day Without NASA at Mars

Image Credit: NASA/JPL

美国宇航局的火星探路者号于1997年7月4日登陆火星。它名叫索杰纳,以废奴主义者索杰纳·特鲁斯的名字命名。在计划的7天任务中,它花了83天时间探索火星地形,获取图像,并进行化学、大气和其他测量。当火星探路者号探测器接近目的地时,美国国家航空航天局的任务已经有20多年没有成功抵达火星。从探路者收到的最后数据是在协调世界时1997年9月27日10时23分。

这张照片显示了火星探路者着陆点西南方向的两座中等大小的山峰。它们是在7月4日由IMP相机拍摄的第一批全景照片中发现的,随后在20多年前拍摄的维京人造卫星图像中被确认。山峰大约有100英尺高(30-35米)。北孪星距离着陆器大约860米(2800英尺),南孪星距离着陆器大约1公里(3300英尺)。现场包括砾石山脊、沼泽或洪碎片形成的“小丘”,从着陆器到南双峰的距离只有几十米。

组成这张“右眼”图像的复合颜色框架由7个框架组成,使用不同的颜色滤镜拍摄,放大500%,然后使用Adobe Photoshop共同添加,产生了一个超分辨率的全色框架,比单个框架更清晰。这幅全色的画面然后用来自同一序列的红、绿、蓝滤过的图像着色。颜色平衡被调整到接近火星的真实颜色。

了解更多:为什么20年来除了NASA没有其它航天器在火星上度过一天?

影像来源:NASA/JPL

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