2020 February 23

Illustris Simulation of the Universe
Video Credit:
Illustris Collaboration, NASA, PRACE, XSEDE, MIT, Harvard CfA;
Music: The Poisoned Princess (Media Right Productions)

Explanation: How did we get here? Click play, sit back, and watch. A computer simulation of the evolution of the universe provides insight into how galaxies formed and perspectives into humanity’s place in the universe. The Illustris project exhausted 20 million CPU hours in 2014 following 12 billion resolution elements spanning a cube 35 million light years on a side as it evolved over 13 billion years. The simulation tracks matter into the formation of a wide variety of galaxy types. As the virtual universe evolves, some of the matter expanding with the universe soon gravitationally condenses to form filaments, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. The featured video takes the perspective of a virtual camera circling part of this changing universe, first showing the evolution of dark matter, then hydrogen gas coded by temperature (0:45), then heavy elements such as helium and carbon (1:30), and then back to dark matter (2:07). On the lower left the time since the Big Bang is listed, while on the lower right the type of matter being shown is listed. Explosions (0:50) depict galaxy-center supermassive black holes expelling bubbles of hot gas. Interesting discrepancies between Illustris and the real universe have been studied, including why the simulation produced an overabundance of old stars.

Tomorrow’s picture: lunar portal

Illustris Collaboration , NASA , PRACE , XSEDE , MIT , Harvard CfA ;
Music: The Poisoned Princess ( Media Right Productions )

说明: 我们是怎么来的?请点选「播放」,来观看一部攸关宇宙演化的电脑模拟,以及它对星系形成和人类在宇宙中该如何定位所提出的见解。 揭示计画(the Illustris project)在2014年,动用了 2千万个计算元运算时数,追踪边长3千5百万光年的立方体内,120亿个组成元在130亿年之间的演化。在这个模拟中,科学家追踪物质如何形成各类星系。随着虚拟宇宙演化,部份随着宇宙膨胀的物质,很快地在重力的作用下聚成丝状天体、星系和星系团。上面这部主题影片以虚拟环绕相机的观点,呈现变动的局部宇宙里的一些天体。首先是暗物质的演化,接着是不同温度下的氢气( 0:45 )如何变化,然后是氦和碳这类重元素的形成( 1:30),最后再回到暗物质 ( 2:07 )。影格的左下角明列大爆炸后的时间,而右下角则标示所呈现的物质种类。爆发事件(例如在0:50),则呈现被星系核心超大质量黑洞喷出的泡状炽热气体。 揭示计画宇宙和真实宇宙存在一些有趣的差异,例如为何这个模拟会产生过量的年老恒星;这些差异正被探研之中。

明日的图片: moon portal

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